Argument for updating a systems network

07 Dec

A similar argument holds that it is conceivable (or not inconceivable) that there could be physical duplicates of people, called "philosophical zombies", without any qualia at all.

These "zombies" would demonstrate outward behavior precisely similar to that of a normal human, but would not have a subjective phenomenology.

The techniques covered are case-based reasoning, rule-based systems, artificial neural networks, fuzzy models, genetic algorithms, cellular automata, multi-agent systems, swarm intelligence, reinforcement learning and hybrid systems.

) meaning "of what sort" or "of what kind" in a specific instance like "what is it like to taste a specific orange, this particular orange now".

Confusion of these two is characteristic of many historical conceptions, as well as of current essence-theories.

The quale is directly intuited, given, and is not the subject of any possible error because it is purely subjective.

Though it is possible to make an analogy, such as "red looks hot", or to provide a description of the conditions under which the experience occurs, such as "it's the color you see when light of 700-nm wavelength is directed at you", supporters of this kind of qualia contend that such a description is incapable of providing a complete description of the experience. A raw feel is a perception in and of itself, considered entirely in isolation from any effect it might have on behavior and behavioral disposition.In contrast, a cooked feel is that perception seen as existing in terms of its effects.For example, the perception of the taste of wine is an ineffable, raw feel, while the experience of warmth or bitterness caused by that taste of wine would be a cooked feel. According to an argument put forth by Saul Kripke in his paper "Identity and Necessity" (1971), one key consequence of the claim that such things as raw feels can be meaningfully discussed—that qualia exist—is that it leads to the logical possibility of two entities exhibiting identical behavior in all ways despite one of them entirely lacking qualia.The idea that an inverted spectrum would be undetectable in practice is also open to criticism on more scientific grounds (see main article).There is an actual experiment—albeit somewhat obscure—that parallels the inverted spectrum argument. Pribram—emeritus professor of psychology and psychiatry at Stanford University—had some of his students perform an experiment in which they wore special prism glasses that caused the external world to appear upside down.